Sex determination in amphibians

Reproductive and Developmental Strategies pp Cite as. In amphibians, it is believed that sex is genetically determined. The genetic sex-determining systems of amphibians include female ZW and male XY heterogamety. Interestingly, the Japanese Wrinkled Frog Glandirana Rana rugosa has both types of heterogamety, which was caused by geographic variation. Although almost all mammalian and avian species have heteromorphic sex chromosomes, the majority of amphibians, including the African Clawed Frog Xenopus laevis , possess homomorphic sex chromosomes.
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Sex Determination and Differentiation in Frogs

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Sex Determination and Differentiation in Frogs | SpringerLink

Antonina V. Trukhina, Natalia A. Lukina, Natalia D. Wackerow-Kouzova, Alexander F.
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Sex determination in amphibians

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The heterogametic sex is male in all mammals, whereas it is female in almost all birds. Though the original heterogametic sex was female in amphibians, the two heterogametic types were probably interchangeable, suggesting that sex chromosomes evolved several times in this lineage. The XY and ZW geographic forms with differentiated sex chromosomes probably have a common origin as undifferentiated sex chromosomes resulted from the hybridization between the primary populations of West Japan and Kanto forms. It is clear that the sex chromosomes are still undergoing evolution in this species group. Regardless of the presence of a sex-determining gene in amphibians, the gonadal sex of some species can be changed by sex steroids.
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